Occupational Asthma Reference

Jonas AM, Raj R, Vaping-Related Acute Parenchymal Lung Injury A Systematic Review, Chest, 2020;158:1555-1565,10.1016/j.chest.2020.03.085

Keywords: Vaping, EVALI, review, ILD, smoking

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Abstract


The outbreak of vaping-related acute lung injury in the United States, named EVALI (e-cigarette or vaping product use associated acute lung injury), has reignited concerns about the health effects of vaping. Initial case reports of vaping-related lung injury date back to 2012, but the ongoing outbreak of EVALI began in the summer of 2019 and has been implicated in 2,807 cases and 68 deaths as of this writing. Review of the scientific literature revealed 216 patient cases that spanned 41 reports of parenchymal lung injury attributed to vaping. In this review, we detail the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic patterns of lung injury that are attributable to vaping and provide an overview of the scientific literature to date on the effects of vaping on respiratory health. Tetrahydrocannabinol was the most commonly vaped substance, and vitamin E acetate was found in BAL specimens from many affected individuals. However, no specific component or contaminant has been identified conclusively to date as the cause for the injury. Patients present with cough, dyspnea, constitutional symptoms, and GI symptoms. Radiologic and histopathologic findings demonstrate a spectrum of nonspecific acute injury patterns. A high index of suspicion combined with a good history are the keys to an accurate diagnosis. Treatment is supportive; the mortality rate is low, and most patients recover. Corticosteroids have been used with apparent success in patients with severe disease, but more rigorous studies are needed to clarify their role in the treatment of vaping-related lung injury.

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